1 Processes and Spatial Patterns

Revision for “1 Processes and Spatial Patterns” created on October 6, 2015 @ 18:02:04 [Autosave]

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1 Processes and Spatial Patterns
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<h2><span style="color: #000000;"> 1 Classification of settlements and factors influencing site and situation</span></h2> <ul> <li><span style="font-size: 13px; font-weight: normal;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><strong>What is settlement?</strong> </span></span></span></span></li> </ul> <blockquote><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: medium;"><em>Settlement is a place where people live, which includes buildings, economic activities and transport networks. The size and shape of settlements vary across the earth's surface. A settlement can be as small as a single building or as large as a megalopolis. </em> </span></blockquote> <ul> <li><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><strong>Site</strong> </span></span></span><em><span style="font-size: medium;">Site refers to the exact land (<strong>physical landscape</strong>) on which a settlement is built. </span></em></li> <li><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"> <strong>Site factors:</strong></span></span></span> <ul> <li><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Water</span></span></span></li> <li><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Relief/micro climate</span></span></span></li> <li><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Soil</span></span></span></li> <li><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Climate</span></span></span></li> <li><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Accessibly and communication</span></span></span></li> <li><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Tradition</span></span></span></li> <li><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Fuel and building material</span></span></span></li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><strong>Influence of site on settlements:</strong></span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><em><strong>1.  Wet point sites</strong></em></span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #888888;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><em>Kufra Oasis wet point site.</em></span></span></span> <strong>Download the Google Earth Kufra Oasis Bookmark:</strong></span> {filelink=1} </span></span></span></span></span></p> {filelink=1} [map id="5"] <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><strong><em>2.  Dry point sites</em></strong> </span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><em>Port Shepstone</em> Country club and Golf Course are built on a flood plane. This area is often flooded in the rainy season. Residential houses are built on the surrounding hills. </span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-size: small;"><strong><em><span style="color: #888888;">Download the Google Earth Port Shepstone Bookmark:</span> </em></strong></span><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: small;">{filelink=2}</span></span> </span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: small;"> [map id="6"] </span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><strong><em>3.  Defensive sites</em></strong></span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><strong><span style="color: #888888;"><span style="color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><em>Colenso defensive site.</em></span></span> <span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Download the Google Earth Colenso Bookmark:</span></span> </strong></span><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: small;">{filelink=3} </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: x-small;"> [map id="7"] </span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><strong>4.  Accessibility/communication sites</strong></span></span></em></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><em>Worcester - Gap Town </em><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-size: small;"><strong><em><span style="color: #888888;">Download the Google Earth Worcester Bookmark:</span> </em></strong></span><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: small;">{filelink=4}</span></span> </span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: x-small;"> [map id="8"] </span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><em>Tulbagh </em><em>- Gap Town </em><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-size: small;"><strong><em><span style="color: #888888;">Download the Google Earth Tulbagh Bookmark:</span> </em></strong></span><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: small;">{filelink=5}</span></span> </span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"> [map id="9"]</span></span></span></span></p> <em><strong>The road heading away from Worcester, entering the Matroosberg Mountains.</strong></em> [map id="11"] <ul> <li><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><strong>Situation</strong> <em>Situation refers to the <strong>location</strong> of a settlement and includes:</em></span></span></span> <ul> <li><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Roads</span></span></span></li> <li><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Railways, harbours and airports</span></span></span></li> <li><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Distance to other settlements/markets</span></span></span></li> <li><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Access to resources and services <em><strong> Example:</strong></em> Richards Bay is close to a harbour with international links. <span style="font-size: small;"><strong><em><span style="color: #888888;">Download the Google Earth Richards Bay Bookmark:</span> </em></strong></span><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: small;">{filelink=6}</span></span> </span></span></li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: x-small;"> [map id="10"] </span></p> <ul> <li><strong><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Classification of settlements according to:</span></span></strong></li> <li> <ul> <li><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Size and complexity </span></span></li> <li><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Pattern</span></span> <ul> <li><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Nucleated: </span></span></li> <li><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Linear/ribbon development: </span></span></li> <li><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Planned (circular or square): </span></span></li> <li><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Crossroads: Semi-circular:</span></span></li> </ul> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <div><span style="font-family: 'Lucida Grande', Verdana, Arial, 'Bitstream Vera Sans', sans-serif; line-height: 12px; font-size: 12px; color: #333333;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">[nggallery id=23]</span></span></span></span></div> <div></div> <ul> <li>Function <em>Function is the main factor that is used to differentiate between rural and urban settlements.</em></li> <li>Urban / rural</li> </ul> <table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1"> <tbody> <tr> <th scope="col"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"> Rural</span></span></th> <th scope="col"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Urban</span></span></th> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="top"> <ul> <li><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"> Uni-functional</span></span></li> <li><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Associated with primary activities</span></span></li> <li><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">It has one dominant function, e.g. agriculture. forestry, mining, conservation, quarrying</span></span></li> <li><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Farmsteads, hamlets and villages</span></span></li> </ul> </td> <td align="left" valign="top"> <ul> <li><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"> Multi-functional</span></span></li> <li><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Associated with secondary, tertiary and quaternary activities</span></span></li> <li><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Variety of functions such as shops, schools, places of worship, hotel, factories, post office, etc</span></span></li> <li><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Towns, cities, metropolis, conurbation and megalopolis</span></span></li> </ul> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> &nbsp; <ul> <li><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;">Site and situation </span></span></span> <ul> <li><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">Factors influencing site and situation of rural settlements </span> </span></span></li> <li><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: tahoma, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Factors influencing site and situation of urban settlements</span></span></li> </ul> </li> </ul>
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October 6, 2015 @ 18:02:04 [Autosave] Eugene Brown
October 6, 2015 @ 17:44:03 Eugene Brown

Geography teacher at heart and author of http://sageography.myschoolstuff.co.za. Account Manager for http://www.campuspress.com. Passionate about South Africa!

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