Urban Climates

Urban Climates Reasons for differences between rural and urban climates Urban heat islands – causes and effects Concept of pollution domes – causes and effects Strategies to reduce the heat island effect

Valley Climates

Valley Climates The micro-climate of valleys (the effect of the slope aspect) Development of anabatic and katabatic winds, inversions, frost pockets and radiation fog The influence of local climates on human activities such as settlement and farming

Subtropical Anticyclones and Associated Weather Conditions

Subtropical Anticyclones and Associated Weather Conditions Location of the high-pressure cells that affect South Africa General characteristics of these high-pressure cells Anticyclonic air circulation around South Africa, and its influence on weather and climate Travelling disturbances associated with anticyclonic circulation:

Tropical Cyclones

Tropical Cyclones General characteristics Hurricane Katrina Areas where tropical cyclones form Factors necessary for their formation A sea temperature of 27°  C Strong Coriolis Force Strong upper air divergence Stages of development & Associated weather patterns Hurricane intensifying over the warmer ocean

Mid-latitude Cyclones

Mid-latitude Cyclones General characteristics Time-lapse photography of a passing Cold Front An introduction to Air Masses Areas where mid-latitude cyclones form Conditions necessary for their formation Frontal Systems explained – Northern Hemisphere Cold Fronts   Warn Fronts SOURCE: http://www.thutong.doe.gov.za/ Cross section

Climate and Weather (Grade 12 CAPS)

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